In the first century a Roman born Jewish historian called Josephus (Yosef Ben Matityahu) wrote that each of the twelve stones in the Breastplate of the High Priest (aka Breastplate of Aaron) represented the months of the year and the twelve signs of the zodiac and it's generally believed this was the origin of the tradition of birthstones.
There is a great deal of debate over the exact gemstones that were used in the breastplate mainly because of inaccurate translations hence there are now many different birthstones in existence. Whilst 'sapphirus' was once thought to be the gemstone sapphire it is now known that it was in fact the blue metamorphic rock that's better known as lapis lazuli.
Although the modern day list of birthstones is the most recent, there are also many older lists in circulation and some argue that the correct way to assign a birthstone is according to the astrological sign and not month of birth.
Wearing or carrying your birthstone is commonly believed to bring good luck and/or health but at the same time many superstitions and supernatural powers have also been attributed to certain gemstones for hundreds and possibly even thousands of years.
The most common lists of birthstones include the traditional, modern and mystical birthstone with the latter originating in Tibet. Ayurvedic birthstones which stem from ancient Indian medicine and Vedic astrology are also very popular.
|Aquarius||January 21 - February 19||Garnet|
|Pisces||February 20 - March 20||Amethyst|
|Aries||March 21 - April 19||Bloodstone|
|Taurus||April 20 - May 20||Sapphire|
|Gemini||May 21 - June 21||Agate|
|Cancer||June 22 - July 22||Ruby|
|Leo||July 23 - August 23||Onyx|
|Virgo||August 24 - September 22||Carnelian|
|Libra||September 23 - October 22||Peridot|
|Scorpio||October 23 - November 22||Beryl|
|Sagittarius||November 23 - December 21||Topaz|
|Capricorn||December 22 - January 20||Ruby|
|Month of Birth||Traditional Birthstone(s)||Modern Birthstone(s)||Mystical Birthstone||Ayurvedic Birthstone|
|June||Alexandrite, Emerald||Moonstone, Pearl||Moonstone||Pearl|
|October||Tourmaline, Aquamarine (Beryl)||Opal, Tourmaline||Jasper||Opal|
|November||Citrine, Topaz||Topaz, Citrine||Pearl||Topaz|
|December||Zircon, Ruby||Turquoise, Blue Topaz||Onyx||